DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

Four Water Concept

Four Water Concept

  • It is an indigenous watershed development technology
  • It is a low-cost technology that can increase recharge of groundwater by four times And provide thrice the benefit than conventional models.
  • The concept evolved by integrating the ‘Four Waters’ –
    • Rainwater
    • Soil moisture
    • Groundwater
    • Surface water
  • This is developed by adopting the proven aspects pertaining to five scientific disciplines namely

    • Agriculture
    • Soil Conservation
    • Ground Water
    • Surface Water and
    • Geo-Engineering.
  • ‘Four Waters’ concept was designed and developed by T. Hanumantha Rao


  • Innovations are introduced in this new technology by integrating the proven principles in these five technical disciplines. The advantages of this technology are that with the same cost, it is possible to increase the benefits three times more and increase the recharge to groundwater ten times more than earlier. Cost-effective works have been introduced in this concept and when these are implemented the following results could be achieved.
  • Due to this advantage, no new major or medium irrigation project is required to be executed in the country.
  • The Four Waters Concept technology would consist mainly of ten types of works and four vegetative activities.

History of The Four Water Concept

  • The Four Waters Concept’ technology was first adopted in Nampi Project in Hebei province in China and later in the new watersheds in Andhra Pradesh between 2000-2004. “Through the Four Waters Concept, groundwater can irrigate three crops at a meagre cost of `15,000 per hectare.
  • A new major irrigation project in Telangana costs `8 lakh per hectare and provide water for only one irrigated dry crop during the rainy period of the Kharif season.

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