DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

Types of Slopes

Gentle Slope
A slope with contour lines spread far apart from each other.

This even spacing is maintained in both up and downslope.

Steep Slope
A slope represented with contour lines close to each other on a topographical map.

Convex Slope A slope which becomes progressively steeper downhill. It can refer to an entire slope or part of one. On a map, the contour lines will be spaced closer together with a decline in height above sea-level.

Concave Slope A slope which becomes progressively steeper uphill. It can refer to the entire slope or part of one. On a map, the Contour lines will be spaced closer with an increase in height above sea-level.

Tectonic Slopes These are formed through internal forces that result in the folding, warping and faulting of rock masses or layers. Anticlines and synclines are formed when layers of rock are folded; while horsts (block mountains) and graben (rift valleys) are formed when blocks of land rise or fall in relation to each other when faulting occurs.

Depositional Slopes Deposits of weather material the build-up to form inclined surfaces, mounds and hills when an agent of erosion (e.g. wind, water or ice) which has lost its energy of motion, lays down its load in a particular place. Examples are alluvial fans, alluvial cones, deltas and sand dunes.

Crest A small convex-shaped slope, with a thin covering of soil
• Edge of the hill
• Convex
• Thin layer of soil
• Weathered material removed
Free face / Scarp / Cliff
• A near-vertical slope, more than 80° to the horizontal
• > 80° to the horizon
• Layer hard resistant rock
• Loose material falls to the bottom of the cliff
• Cliff retreats parallel to itself

Talus / Scree / Debris/Rectilinear slope/constant/uniform
• A slope with a constant angle, and is formed of eroded material from the crest and free face
• Accumulates from crest and cliff face
• Uniform slope
• A low-angle concave slope
• Low angle, concave slope
• Slope is not uniform- steeper close to the talus slope
• Pediment increases as the slope increases backwards due to scarp recession

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