DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

What is SCO?

SCO is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation.

It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region.

It was created in 2001.

The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003.

It is a statutory document which outlines the organisation’s goals and principles, as well as its structure and core activities.

The SCO’s official languages are Russian and Chinese.


Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five.

Shanghai Five (1996) emerged from a series of border demarcation and demilitarization talks which the four former Soviet republics held with China to ensure stability along the borders.

Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.

India and Pakistan became members in 2017.


  1. Kazakhstan
  2. China
  3. Kyrgyzstan
  4. Russia
  5. Tajikistan
  6. Uzbekistan
  7. India
  8. Pakistan

Observer states

  • Afghanistan
  • Belarus
  • Iran
  • Mongolia

Dialogue Partner

  • Azerbaijan
  • Armenia
  • Cambodia
  • Nepal
  • Turkey
  • Sri Lanka


Strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states.

Promoting effective cooperation in -politics, trade & economy, research & technology and culture.

Enhancing ties in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, etc.

Maintain and ensure peace, security and stability in the region.

Establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political & economic order.

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