DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

Lord Hardinge II (1910–16):Lord Hardinge served as India’s Viceroy

From 1910 to 1916, Lord Hardinge served as India’s Viceroy. He had entered the diplomatic service in 1880 and had served in Tehran as first secretary and Ambassador to Russia. But his administrative experiences were next to nothing.  This young viceroy was sympathetic towards the Indians and wished to win their goodwill. The important event during his tenure were Delhi Durbar of 1911, annulment of the partition of Bengal (1911), Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911), Delhi Conspiracy Case (1912), Departure of Mahatma Gandhi to South Africa, Outbreak of the First World War (1914), Formation of the Home Rule League by Tilak, Foundation of Benaras Hindu University, Foundation of Ghadar Party, Komagatamaru incident, Foundation of Indian Independence League at Berlin (1914) etc.

Delhi Durbar of 1911


In 1910, there was a succession in England where King George V ascended the throne. In 1911, he paid a visit to India and a Darbar was held to commemorate the coronation of King George V and Queen Mary. This Darbar brought back the pomp and show of the Mughals once again in Delhi. The King and the Queen attired in the coronation robes with thousands of diamonds and precious gems appeared in the Jharokha of the red fort to give Darshan to 5 Lakh Indian people who gathered to greet the sovereign couple.

The Congress passed a resolution condemning the pomp and show of this Darbar at the cost of the poor Indians. King declared that Capital of India will be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. In the same Darbar it was also declared the Partition of Bengal is cancelled.

Delhi Conspiracy case 1912

Delhi Conspiracy Case or Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy Case or Hardinge Bomb Case happened in 1912 when some members of Yugantar threw bomb in Chandni Chwok of Delhi to kill Lord Harding. The Viceroy survived with minor wounds but his mahawat {keeper of elephant} was killed. It was thought that this conspiracy was hatched by Ras Behari Bose, who then went underground and fled to Japan. In the trial, Basant Kumar Biswas, Amir Chand and Avadh Behari were convicted and executed.

B.H.U. Act 1915

In 1915, under Lord Hardinge, BHU act was passed by which Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya established the Banaras Hindu University.

Foundation of Ghadar Party 1913

It was after 1910, when the activities of India House had declined and the cradle of activities shifted from Europe to America. One of its members, Lal Hardayal settled in San Francisco and indulged in Industrial Unionism. In 1913, he set up Pacific Coast Hindustan Association with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president, which was called Ghadar Party. The members of this party were the immigrant Sikhs of US and Canada.

Begin of World War I June 1914

On 28 June 1914, World war-I started and India naturally became a belligerent in the war.  The British Government sought support of the Indians and most sections of the Indian society were with the empire. The moderates supported the war because, who knows their demands of self Government may be fulfilled after the war.

Return of Gandhi from South Africa

On 8 January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India. In May 1915, he laid the foundation of Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad. Till 1917, Gandhi had no official leadership or role or agenda and British could easily tolerate his presence.