DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

Ganga River System

Ganga River

  • The Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Kashi District of Uttarakhand at an elevation of 7,010 m.
  • Alaknanda River joins Bhagirathi at Devaprayag.
  • From Devapryag the river is called as Ganga.
  • The Ganges was ranked as the fifth most polluted river of the world in 2007.
  • Pollution threatens many fish species and amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin (Blind Dolphin).
  •  The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to corruption, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.

Major tributaries of Alaknanda

  • East Trisul (joins Alaknanda at Karan Prayag)
  • Pindar (rises from Nanda Devi)
  • Mandakini or Kali Ganga (joins Alaknanda at Rudra Prayag)
  • Dhauliganga
  • Bishenganga.

[Kishenganga is the tributary of Jhelum]

Major tributaries of Bhagirathi

  • Bheling
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  • Ganga debouches [emerge from a confined space into a wide, open area] from the hills into plain area at
  • It is joined by the Yamuna at Allahabad.
  • Near Rajmahal Hills it turns to the south-east.
  • At Farraka, it bifurcates into Bhagirathi-Hugli in West Bengal and Padma-Meghna in Bangladesh (it ceases to be known as the Ganga after Farraka).
  • Brahmaputra (or the Jamuna as it is known here) joins Padma-Meghna at
  • The total length of the Ganga river from its source to its mouth (measured along the Hugli) is 2,525 km.

Ganga – Brahmaputra Delta

  • Before entering the Bay of Bengal, the Ganga, along with the Brahmaputra, forms the largest delta of the world between the Bhagirathi/Hugli and the Padma/Meghna covering an area of 58,752 sq km.
  • The coastline of delta is a highly indented area.
  • The delta is made of a web of distributaries and islands and is covered by dense forests called the
  • A major part of the delta is a low-lying swamp which is flooded by marine water during high tide.

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