The understanding of the necessity to protect and preserve the Caspian Sea’s natural resources for future generations and that this goal can only be achieved through international cooperation was at the heart of the intent to create the Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, the Tehran Convention. By ratifying the Convention the five Parties Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan confirmed their readiness to go the path of sustainable development and to take environmental concerns into account in their development planning. Having entered into force in 2006, the Tehran Convention is the first regional legally binding instrument signed by all five Caspian littoral states. It serves as an overarching governance framework which lays down the general requirements and the institutional mechanism for environmental protection and sustainable development in the Caspian Sea region. Under its umbrella the Parties have developed additional Protocols on priority areas of common concern. The effective implementation of the Tehran Convention and its Protocols will support the protection of the marine environment and with it of the livelihoods, health and well-being of present and future generations around the Caspian Sea.