DR Ambedkar IAS Academy

House Sparrow

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House Sparrow, once an integral part of our immediate environment, all but disappeared almost two decades ago. These lived in the cavities of our houses and polished off our leftover food. They are part of the red list of the endangered species of The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Fossil evidence from a cave in Bethlehem dating back 4,00,000 years suggests that the house sparrow shared its space with early humans. 

According to a 2018 Royal Society of London report, the bond between humans and sparrows goes back 11,000 years, and the starch-friendly genes of the house sparrow tell us a story linked to our own evolution. Agriculture, the study said, triggered similar adaptation in three very different species – dogs, house sparrows and humansEvery year March 20 is observed as the ‘World Sparrow Day’ to raise awareness about the bird.

The initiative was started by the ‘Nature Forever Society (NFS)’ of India.

  • In India, House Sparrow is found throughout the country, up to the Assam valley and lower parts of the Assam hills. Towards the eastern Himalayas, the species is replaced by the Eurasian tree sparrow.
  • Scientific Name- Passer domesticus
  • Conservation Status- Least Concern on the Red List of The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  • Habitat and Distribution
    • The house sparrow is widespread across the world, inhabiting every continent, except Antarctica, China and Japan. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa.
  • It is the State bird of Bihar and Delhi.
  • It is known to stay close to human habitations, and is therefore among the most commonly found bird species in urban cities.
  • Some of the causes for decline in its population are as follow:
    • Unfriendly architecture of our homes.
    • The use of chemical fertilisers in crops.
    • Noise pollution.
    • Exhaust fumes from vehicles
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